رویکرد سازمان جهانی تجارت نسبت به انرژی‌های تجدیدپذیر

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق بینالملل اقتصادی دانشگاه لوزان

2 استادیار دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

انرژی در روابط تجاری بین‌المللی از اهمیت فزاینده‌ای برخوردار است، اما سازمان جهانی تجارت مشخصاً به این بخش نپرداخته است که این موضوع سبب بروز مشکلاتی در زمینۀ تنظیم مقررات مرتبط با تجارت کالا و خدمات در بخش انرژی شده است. علاوه بر این، افزایش تمایل کشورها به استفاده از انرژی‌های تجدیدپذیر و به دلیل نگرانی‌های برخاسته از گرمایش زمین و آلودگی‌های زیست‌محیطی سبب شده است تا بحث اعمال مقررات سازمان جهانی تجارت بر این دسته از انرژی‌ها با چالش‌های جدی روبه‌رو شود. ایجاد تعادل بین قواعد موجود حاکم بر تجارت آزاد و مجازدانستن اقدامات کشورهای عضو سازمان جهانی تجارت درخصوص حمایت از توسعه و بهره‌برداری گسترده از انرژی‌های تجدیدپذیر به‌ویژه پس از صدور آرای مرتبط از سوی رکن حل اختلاف بیانگر وظیفۀ عمدۀ سازمان جهانی تجارت برای حل این خلأ قانونی در آینده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


Books

Benitah Marc (2001). Law of Subsidies under the GATT/WTO System, Kluwer Law International.

Cottier Thomas et al. (eds) (2009). International Trade Regulation and the Mitigation of Climate Change: World Trade Forum, Cambridge University Press.

Egelund Olsen Brigitte, ‘Introduction’ in Brigitte Egelund Olsen et al (eds)(2012). WTO Law: From a European Perspective, Wolters Kluwer.

Hardy John T. (2003). Climate Change: Causes, Effects and Solutions, Chichester: Wiley.

Henson Spencer & John S. Wilson (eds) (2005). The WTO and Technical Barriers to Trade, Edward Elgar.

Houghton John T. (2004). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing, Cambridge University.

Jackson John H. et al, (1984). Implementing the Tokyo Round: national and international economic rules, University of Michigan Press.

Jackson John H. (1998). The World Trade Organization: constitution and jurisprudence, London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.

Jackson John H. (1997). The world trading system: law and policy of international economic relations, London: The MIT Press.

Kassler Peter (1997). Energy Exporters and Climate Change, Brookings Institution.

Leal-Arcas Rafael et al. (2014). International Energy Governance: Selected Legal Issues, Edward Elgar.

Manzano Jordia Jaria i et al (eds) (2016). Energy, Governance and Sustainability, Edward Elgar.

Matsushita Mitsu et al. (2015). The World Trade Organization, Third Edition, Oxford University Press.

Selivanova Yulia (2008). Energy Dual Pricing in WTO Law: Analysis and Prospect in the Context of Russia’s Accession to the WTO, London: Cameron May.

Stoll Peter–Tobias, ‘World Trade Organization (WTO)’ in Frauke Lachenmann and Rüdiger Wolfrum (eds) (2015). International Economic Law: The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Thematic series vol. I, Oxford University Press.

Van Den Bosshe Peter (2013). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization: Text, Cases and Materials, 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press.

Articles

Carey Tim (2009). "Cartel Price Controls vs. Free Trade: A Study of Proposals to Challenge OPEC’s Influence in the Oil Market Through WTO Dispute Settlement", 24(4) American University International Law Review.

Cottier Thomas (2014). "Renewable Energy and WTO Law: More Policy Space or Enhanced Disciplines?", 5(1) Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review.

Ederington Josh and Phillip McCalman (2008). "Endogenous Firm Heterogeneity and the Dynamics of Trade Liberalization", 74 Journal of International Economics.

Geboye Desta Melaku. "The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries", the World.

Laprevote Francois-Charles & Sungjin Kang (2011). "Subsidies Issues in the WTO – An Update", 10(3) European State Aid Law Quarterly.

Marceau Gabriel (2010). "The WTO in the Emerging Energy Governance Debate", 5(3) Global Trade and Customs Journal.

"Trade Organization and Regional Trade Agreements" (2003). 37(3) Journal of World Trade.

Reports

The United Nations, "A Vision Statement by Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General of the United Nations: Sustainable Energy for All" (UN 2011) http://www.se4all.org/sites/default/files/l/2014/02/SG_Sustainable_Energy_for_All_vision.pdf.

Department for Communities & Local Government of the United Kingdom  (2013). "Planning practice guidance for renewable and low carbon energy", https://infrastructure.planninginspectorate.gov.uk/wp-content/ipc/uploads/projects/EN010013/EN010013-003019-WR_51_Written%20Representation_RWE%20NPower%20Renewables.pdf (Last visited on 10 July 2017).

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). "REmap 2030: A Renewable Energy Roadmap", (Abu Dhabi: IRENA 2014)

WTO (1998). "Energy Services", Background Note by the Secretariat, S/C/W/52.

Robert Howse & Petrus B. van Bork (2006). "Options for Liberalising Trade in Environmental Goods in the Doha Round", ICTSD Project on Environmental Goods and Services, Issue Paper No. 2 https://www.ictsd.org/downloads/2008/04/egshowse_bork.pdf.

Simonetta Zarrilli (2002). "International Trade in Energy Services and the Developing Countries in Energy and Environmental Services - Renegotiating Objectives and Development Priorities", (UNCTAD).

UNCTAD (2000). "Trade Agreements, Petroleum and Energy Policies (Executive Summary)", (Geneva: UN Publisher).

Yulia Selivanova (2007). "The WTO and Energy. WTO Rules and Agreements of Relevance to the Energy Sector", ICTSD Issue Paper No. 1.

GATT/WTO Cases

Brazil — Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaed Tyres (WT/DS332/AB/R) Appellate Body Report [17 December 2007] [hereinafter: Brazil — Retreaed Tyres].

 

Brazil — Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaed Tyres (WT/DS332/R) Panel Report [12 June 2007] [hereinafter: Brazil — Retreaed Tyres].

Canada — Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector and Canada — Measures Relating to the Feed-In Tariff Program (WT/DS412 and 426/R) Panel Report [19 December 2012] [hereinafter: Canada — Feed-In Tariff Program] and [hereinafter: Canada — Renewable Energy].

Canada — Certain Measures Concerning Periodicals, (WT/DS31/R) Panel Report [14 March 1997] [hereinafter: Canada — Periodicals].

Canada — Measures Affecting Exports of Unprocessed Herring and Salmon, Report of the GATT Panel adopted on 22 March 1988 (L/6268-35S/98) [hereinafter: Canada — Herring and Salmon].

Canada — Measures Relating to the Feed-In Tariff Program and Canada — Measures Relating to the Feed-In Tariff Program (WT/DS412 and 426/AB/R) Appellate Body Report [6 May 2013] [hereinafter: Canada — Feed-In Tariff Program].

China — Measures concerning Wind Power Equipment (WT/DS419/1) Request for Consultation [22 December 2010].

China — Measures Related to the Exportation of Rare Earth, Tungsten, and Molybdenum (WT/DS431, 432 and 433/R) Panel Report, [26 March 2014] [hereinafter: China—Rare Earth].

China — Measures Related to the Exportation of Various Raw Materials (WT/DS394, 95 and 98/R) Panel Report, [5 July 2011] [hereinafter: China — Raw Materials].

European Communities Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos (WT/DS135/R) Panel Report, [18 September 2000] [hereinafter: EC — Asbestos].

European Communities Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos (WT/DS135/AB/R) Appellate Body Report, [12 March 2001] [hereinafter: EC — Asbestos].

European Communities — Protection of Trademarks and Geographical Indications for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs (WT/DS290/R) Panel Report [15 March 2005] [hereinafter: EC — Trademarks and Geographical Indications (Australia)].

European Communities — Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas, (WT/DS27/AB/R) Appellate Body Report [9 September 1997] [hereinafter: EC — Bananas III].

European Union and Certain Member States — Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector (WT/DS452/1) Request for Consultation [5 November 2012].

India — Certain Measures Relating to Solar Cells and Solar Modules (WT/DS456/R) Panel Report [24 February 2014] [hereinafter: India — Solar Cells].

Korea — Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, (WT/DS75/AB/R) Appellate Body Report [17 February 1999] [hereinafter: Korea — Alcoholic Beverages].

United States — Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimps and Shrimp Products, (WT/DS58/AB/R) Appellate Body Report [12 October 1998] [hereinafter: US — Shrimps].

United States — Prohibition of Imports of Tuna and Tuna Products from Canada, Report of the GATT Panel, adopted 22 February 1982 (L/5198, BISD 29S/91) [hereinafter: US — Tuna Canada].

United States — Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, Report of the GATT Panel, 16 June 1994, unadopted (DS29/R) [hereinafter: US — Tuna (EEC)].

United States — Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, Appellate Body Report, (WT/DS2/AB/R) [29 April 1996] [hereinafter: US — Gasoline].

United States Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline (WT/DS2/AB/R)Appellate Body Report, [29 April 1996] [hereinafter: US — Gasoline].

United States — Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, (WT/DS2/9) Panel Report [20 May 1996] [hereinafter: US — Gasoline].

United States — Taxes on Automobiles, Report of the GATT Panel, 11 October 1994, unadopted (DS31/R) [hereinafter: US — Taxes on Automobile].