عنوان مقاله [English]
Oil resources are God-given riches whose extraction and exports, especially in the Middle East is important for economic development but alongside that, protection of environment as the third generation of human rights is a public duty for all countries. among pollutants that affect marine environment, oil is among the most important. Oil causes damage and loss even in small quantities on marine life and compensation is not easy because of vast volume of pollution. In petroleum industries risk of pollution exists in different steps of activity such as discovery and excavation and development and transit so in international and national arenas different legislative documents have been ratified. In oil pollution incidents, recognition of the responsible is difficult and enforcing payment is also fraught with trouble, so firstly the system of responsibility based on guilt is not efficient and the system of responsibility based on absolute responsibility is appropriate and purchasing insurance coverages is a mechanism through which this system can function efficiently
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