اهمیت انرژی های پاک از منظر حقوق بشر و تعهدات حقوق بشری ‏دولت ها در تأمین انرژی با تأکید بر رویة قضایی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دورة دکتری حقوق بین الملل عمومی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مراغه‏

2 استادیار گروه حقوق بین الملل دانشکده علوم انسانی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مراغه ‏

3 دانشیار گروه حقوق دانشکده الهیات دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان

چکیده

     از دیدگاه نهادهای حقوق بشری تغییرات اقلیمی ناشی از سوخت­ های فسیلی، طیف گسترده ­ای از حقوق بشر را تهدید می­ کند. درنتیجه، دولت­ ها در اتخاذ سیاست­ های تأمین انرژی بی­ قیدوشرط نبوده و دارای تعهدات گسترده ­ای دربارة حقوق بشر هستند. این تحقیق با روش «توصیفی-تحلیلی» و با استفاده از آرای قضایی، در پی بررسی این مسئله است که انرژی های پاک از منظر حقوق بشر چه اهمیت و جایگاهی دارند؟ همچنین با توجه آثار زیان ­بار تغییرات اقلیمی، دولت­ ها دربارة اتخاذ سیاست‌های قابل­ قبول انرژی چه تعهداتی دارند؟ نتایج تحقیق نشان می­ دهد اصول و قواعد حقوق بشر و حقوق بین ­الملل محیط زیست دو دسته از تعهدات «شکلی» و «ماهوی» را برای دولت ­ها در زمینة اتخاذ سیاست ­های تأمین انرژی مشخص کرده ­اند. یافته­ های تحقیق نشان می ­دهد که محاکم و نهادهای حقوق بشری با استناد به تعهدات حقوق بشری، نه ­تنها دولت­ها، بلکه حتی شرکت­ های نفت و گاز را ملزم به تجدیدنظر در «سیاست­ های انرژی» خود کرده ­اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Importance of Clean Energy from the ‎Perspective of Human rights and human Rights ‎Obligations of States in Energy Supply with an ‎Emphasis on judicial Procedure

نویسندگان [English]

  • Waliullah Nasiri 1
  • Hossein Sorayaei Azar 2
  • Hojjat Salimi Turkmani 3
1 PhD Student in Public International Law, Islamic Azad University, ‎Maragheh Branch.‎
2 Associate Professor, Department of Public International Law, Islamic ‎Azad University, Maragheh Branch
3 Associate Prof Public International Law, Shahid Madani University of ‎Azerbaijan
چکیده [English]

Abstract
From the perspective of human rights organizations, climate change from fossil fuels threatens a wide range of human rights. As a result, States are not unconditional in adopting energy supply policies and have broad human rights obligations. This research, using a “descriptive-analytical” method and using judicial opinions, seeks to examine the importance and position of clean energy from the perspective of human rights. Also, given the harmful effects of climate change, what obligations do States have in relation to adopting acceptable energy policies? The results of the study show that the principles and rules of human rights and international environmental law have identified two categories of “Substantive obligations” and “Procedural” obligations for States to adopt energy supply policies. The findings show that human rights courts and institutions, citing human rights obligations, have required not only States but even oil and gas companies to reconsider their “energy policies”.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate change
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Clean energy
  • Human rights
  • States ‎obligations.‎
  1. منابع

    الف) فارسی

    1. امین­ زاده، الهام؛ بهنام بهنیایی (1398). «الزامات حقوقی امنیت انرژی با تأکید بر مخاطرات زیست­ محیطی در صنعت نفت و گاز». مطالعات راهبردی سیاست­ گذاری عمومی، دورة نهم، شمارة 30، ص173-158.

    http://sspp.iranjournals.ir › article_36000   (8 تیر1401)

    1. بهجت، جودا (1394). امنیت انرژی: رویکرد میان­ رشته ­ای. تهران، دانشگاه امام صادق (ع).
    2. سوادکوهی­ فر، ضحی (1391). «دسترسی به انرژی و حقوق بشر». دادرسی. شمارة 96، ص32-27.  magiran.com/p1132064 (8 تیر1401)
    1. صبوری ­پور، مهدی؛ اصغر احمدی (1399). «جرایم محیط زیستی ناشی از کووید-19: جلوه­ ها و کاستی ­ها». فصلنامة تحقیقات حقوقی (ویژه­ نامة حقوق و کرونا)، دورة 23، ص328-303.

    (8 تیر1401) https://lawresearchmagazine.sbu.ac.ir › issue_11682_11

    1. عبداللهی، محسن (1389). «تغییرات آب و هوایی: تأملی بر راهبردها و تدابیر حقوقی سازمان ملل متحد». مجلة حقوق دانشگاه تهران، دورة 40، شمارة اول، ص213-193. http://sid.ir/fa/VEWSSID/J_pdf/77713890110.pdf (8 تیر1401)
    2. موسوی، سید فضل­الله؛ مهدی پیری­ دمق (1394). «توسعة انرژی­ های تجدیدپذیر از منظر حقوق بین ­الملل». مطالعات حقوق انرژی، دورة اول، شمارة 2، ص287-257. https://jrels.ut.ac.ir › article_5721 (8 تیر1401)

    ب) خارجی

    -Books

    7. Anaya, S. James (2004). Indigenous Peoples in International Law. Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition.

    8. Estrin, David; Baroness, Helena; Kennedy, QC (2014). Achieving Justice and Human Rights in an Era of Climate Disruption, International Bar Association. 4th Floor, 10 St Bride Street, London EC4A 4AD. ISBN 978-0-948711-35-0.

    9. Savaresi, Annalisa; Hartmann, Jacques (2020). “The Impacts of Climate Change and Human Rights: Some Early Reflections on the Carbon Majors Inquiry”. In: Lin J & Kysar DA, Climate Change Litigation in the Asia Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    -Articles

    10. Adelman, Sam (2018). “Human Rights in the Paris Agreement: Too Little, Too Late?”. Transnational Environmental Law, Vol.7, Issue.1, P1-20    DOI: 10.1017/S2047102517000280.

    11. Antkowiak, Thomas M (2014). “Rights, Resources, and Rhetoric: Indigenous Peoples and the Inter-American Court”. University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, Vol.35, No.1, P187-113. https://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu/faculty/432 (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    12. Beck, Stuart; Burleson, Elizabeth (2014). “Inside the System, Outside the Box: Palau’s Pursuit of Climate Justice and Security at the United Nations”. Transnational Environmental Law, Vol.3, Issue.1, P17-29 DOI: 10.1017/S2047102514000028.

    13. Bratspies, Rebecc (2015). “Do We Need a Human Right to a Healthy Environment?”. Santa Clara journal of international law, Vol.13, Issue.1, P62-31. Available at: http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/scujil/vol13/iss1/3 (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    14. Broto,Vanesa Castán; Kirshner, Joshua (2020). “Energy access is needed to maintain health during pandemics”. Nature Energy, Vol. 5, Issue.6, P419-421 DOI: 10.1038/s41560-020-0625-6.

    15. Faga, Hemen Philip; Uchechukwu Uguru (2019). “Oil Exploration, Environmental Degradation, and Future Generations in the Niger Delta: Options for Enforcement of Intergenerational Rights and Sustainable Development Through Legal and Judicial Activism”. Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, Vol.34, P218-186. URI: https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/24686 (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    16. Gunnar K. et al (2011). “Energy, Gender and Development. What are the Linkages? Where is the Evidence?”. The World Bank Sustainable Development Network, Research Working Paper 5800. Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org.pdf (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    17. Heidari, Negin; Pearce, Joshua M (2016). “A Review of Greenhouse Gas Emission Liabilities as the Value of Renewable Energy for Mitigating Lawsuits for Climate Change Related Damages”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 55C, P899-908 DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.025.

    18. Tierney, Jessica E; Haywood, Alan M; Feng, Ran; Bhattacharya, Tripti; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L (2019). “Pliocene Warmth Consistent With Greenhouse Gas Forcing, Geophysical Research Letters”. Vol.46, Issue.15, P9136-9144 DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083802.

    19. Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W; Patz, Jonathan A (2017). “Climate Change and Collective Violence”. Health and Human Rights, Vol.16, Issue.1, P32-40 DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044232.

    20. Limon, Marc (2010). “Human Rights Obligations and Accountability in the Face of Climate Change”. Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol.33, P545-567. Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.uga.edu/gjicl/vol38/iss3/5 (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    21. Löfquist, Lars (2019). “Is there a universal human right to electricity?”. The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol.24, Issue.6, P711-723   DOI:  10.1080/13642987.2019.1671355.

    22. Meguro, M (2020). “State of the Netherlands v. Urgenda Foundation”. American Journal of International Law, Vol.114, Issue.4, P729-735 DOI: /10.1017/ajil.2020.52.

    23. Daniel, Magraw (2021). “Environmental Justice, Climate Change and the Right to a Healthy Environment in the Biden Administration”. 28 April 2021.   DOI: https://www.universal-rights.org (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    24. Onwuazombe, Ifeanyi I (2017). “Human Rights Abuse and Violations in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Oil-Producing Communities in the Niger Delta Region”. Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law, Vol. 22, Issue 1, Article 8, P160-115. Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.ggu.edu/annlsurvey/vol22/iss1/8 (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    25. Peel, Jacqueline; Osofsky, Hari M (2018). “A Rights Turn in Climate Change Litigation?”. Transnational Environmental Law, Vol.7, Issue.1, P37-67   DOI: 10.1017/S2047102517000292).

    26. Setzer, Joana; Lisa C. Vanhala (2019). “Climate change litigation: A review of research on courts and litigants in climate governance”. WIRES climate change, Vol 10, Issue 3. P1-19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.580.

    27. Sinden, Amy (2008). “Climate Change and Human Rights”. Journal of Land, Resources & Environmental Law, Forthcoming, Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2008-49, Vol. 27, No. 2, P1-17. DOI:10.2139/ssrn.984266

    28. Stillings, Zackary L (2014). “Human Rights and the New Reality of Climate Change: Adaptation's Limitations in Achieving Climate Justice”. MICH. J. INT'L L, Vol.35, Issue.3, P638-670. https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjil/vol35/iss3/4 (Accessed 29 June 2022).

    29. Van Veelen, Bregje (2018). “Negotiating energy democracy in practice: governance processes in community energy projects”. Environmental Politics, Vol.27, No.4, P644-665

    DOI: /10.1080/09644016.2018.1427824).

    30. Watts, M.J (2005). “Righteous oil?: Human rights, the oil complex, and corporate social responsibility”. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol.30, Issue.1, P373-407 DOI:10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144456.

    31. Zimmerer, Jürgen (2014). “Climate change, environmental violence and genocide”. The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol.18, Issue.3, P265-280   DOI:10.1080/13642987.2014.914701.

    -Documents, Resolutions and Reports

    32. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007-Synthesis Report, adopted at IPCC Plenary XXVII, Valencia, Spain, (IPCC AR4 Synthesis Report), p72.

    33. OHCHR (2009). Relationship Between Climate Change and Human Rights, A/HRC/10/61.

    34. UIO working paper (2013). The UN Security Council and Climate Change: rising seas levels, shrinking resources and the green helmets, Oslo: Uio Press.

    35. United Nations General Assembly (2019). A/74/161, Human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, paras.4, 43, 55.

    36. WHO (2019). A72/15, Health, environment and climate change, para.6.

    37. UN Secretary-General (2018). “Secretary-General’s remarks on Climate”. https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/ statement /2018-09-10/.

    38. United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) Concluding Observations: E/C.12/ECU/CO/4 (2018). E/C.12/NOR/CO/6 (2020).

    39. United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Concluding Observations: Jordan, CRC/C/ESP/CO/5-6 (2018). CRC/C/NOR/CO/5-6 (2018).

    40. United Nations (2021). “Frequently Asked Questions on Human Rights and Climate Change”. New York and Geneva United Nations publication, issued by the OHCHR.

    41. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Concluding Observations: CEDAW/C/KOR/CO/8 (2018).

    42. UNHRC Res, A/HRC/31/52 (2016). A/HRC/35/13(2017). A/HRC/31/52(2016). HRC/40/69 (2019). A/HRC/45/34 (2020). A/RES/73/236 (2019). A/HRC/40/55(2019). A/HRC/43/53(2019).

    -judgmental procedure

    43. ACHPR (2010). Centre for Minority Rights Development (Kenya) and Minority Rights Group International on behalf of Endorois Welfare Council v. Kenya, ACHPR Comm, No. 276/2003, page 80. paras. 226, 290 and 292.

    44. ACHPR (2012). Communication No. 155/96, Social and Economic Rights Action Centre v. Nigeria (Ogoniland case) SERAP v. Nigeria, Judgement No. ECW/CCJ/JUD/18/12.

    45. ACHPR (2017). African Commission of Human and Peoples’ Rights v Kenya (the ‘Ogiek case’), Application No.006/2012, African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, judgment of 26 May 2017. paras. 196, 227 (page 68).

    46. I.C.J (2010). Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay), Judgment, I.C.J.

    47. IACHR (2010). Kichwa v. Ecuador, Petition to the Court, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Case No. 12.465, 60 (April 26, 2010).

    48. IACHR (2011). Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Second report on the situation of human rights defenders in the Americas, para. 315.

    49. IACtHR (2012). Kichwa Indigenous People of Sarayaku v. Ecuador, Judgment of 27 June 2012, IACtHR Series C, No. 245 [Sarayaku Case].

    50. IACtHR (2020). Caso Comunidades Indígenas Miembros de la Asociación Lhaka Honhat (Nuestra Tierra) vs. Argentina (Feb 6, 2020), para.208.

    51. State of the Netherlands v. Urgenda Foundation, ECLI: NL: HR: 2019: 2007, Judgment (Sup. Ct. Neth. Dec. 20, 2019).

    52. Urgenda Foundation v. The State of the Netherlands, ECLI: NL: GHDHA: 2018: 2610, Judgment (Ct. App. The Hague Oct. 9, 2018).

    53. Urgenda Foundation v. State of the Netherlands [2015] HAZA C/09/00456689, (Dist. Ct. The Hague June 24, 2015).

    54. Leghari v Federation of Pakistan and others, Lahore High Court, WP No 25501/2015.

    55. Milieudefensie et al v Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague District Court 26 May 2021.