عنوان مقاله [English]
Common international waterways have special importance and status in terms of international law and relations. Undoubtedly, one of the most important challenges of the last century of international institutions is to try for more coordination between States with common water resources and fair allocation of these resources among them. Familiarity of the States with international customs and laws on how to exploit shared water resources will lead to optimal management and reduce tensions in this area. In this regard, several international treaties and agreements have been prepared with the efforts of international organizations and institutions. In addition, many customary laws have been appeared in this regard at the international level.
Despite the great importance of the issue, the challenge of using international waterways has not yet been managed and planned by an international binding agreement or law, although with the passage of time, public understanding for international participation to solve resource problems Common blue has increased; But the world community has not yet reached a suitable conclusion on an international document that can be agreed upon for the management and protection of common water resources.
Until now, various laws, treaties and resolutions have been approved regarding the joint exploitation of common water resources, but due to the existence of problems and ambiguities in some of the articles of these laws, none of these laws are used as a reference law. One of the important reasons for that is the existence of different doctrines and attitudes towards environmental law and its philosophy.
According to the Helsinki Laws of 1996, all countries located along the river have equal rights to use water resources, and no country has the right to use river water if it causes damage to other countries along the river. In the 1997 Convention on the Rights of Non-Navigational Uses of International Waterways, many legal principles raised in international environmental law, such as "the principle of rational and fair exploitation and use of water and the principle of prohibiting damage to the territory of the state Other" and the principle of "international cooperation" have been formulated and presented.
In terms of research, the articles written in this field are mostly in English. One of the most important works done in Persian language in this field is an article written by Mr. Shuli, Watan Feda and Mrs. Sarkar Khanum Arideh entitled "Examination of the theories and legal provisions of water sharing in the laws of international treaties on border waters" The article examines international treaties on border waters, which is very valuable
Considering the important differences and problems of the Islamic Republic of Iran with its neighbors regarding common waterways and considering the severe water shortage, the most important achievement of this article is the pathology and finding ways to optimally use international regulations, laws and obligations to prevent It is a violation of the right of our country and also to refrain from any tension with the neighbors in this regard.
The most important hypothesis of the article is about this axis: "customary obligations of countries and approved international conventions on the issue of international waterways are the only way to resolve the disputes of neighboring countries in this area.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the existing international laws, customs and treaties on how countries use common water resources. Based on the findings of this study, compliance with regulations and treaties by countries will lead to optimal management and reduce tensions in this area.
https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/JournalListPaper(5 مرداد 1399)
https://pg.um.ac.ir (12 فروردین 1399)
https://www.sid.ir (3 اردیبهشت 1399)
http://ca.ipisjournals.ir(13 اسفند 1398)